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Biblical Relationships and Ancient Culture - Flash (Large) - 20120125 09.28.52AM
  1. Dyadic Personality/Collectivist Culture
  2. Honor/Shame versus Guilt Culture
  3. Kinship and Marriage
  4. Patron/Client Relationships
  5. Clean and Unclean
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Dyadic Personality/Collectivist Culture Geography Genealogy Gender Bruce J. Malina and Jerome H. Neyrey. (1996). Portraits of Paul: An Archaeology of Ancient Personality. Louisville: Westminster John Knox. Honor/Shame versus Guilt Culture Achieving glory Avoiding shame Bruce J. Malina. (1993). The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology. Rev. ed. Louisville: Westminster John Knox. Kinship and Marriage Endogamous (a matter of property) A matter of honor/shame Bruce J. Malina. (1996). The Social World of Jesus and the Gospels. London: Routledge. Patron/Client Relationships Grace and Gift (informal reciprocity) Limited Good David A. deSilva. (2000). Honor, Patronage, Kinship, & Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic. Clean and Unclean Real, not just ritual Sacrifice
. she launched about some important called four dollars . what we look at people in the New Testament . we look at topics like relationships in the New Testament . Jesus related to people . oh congregations an assemblies of early Christians related to each other . when we start off we might have the impression that well people are people actually read about the relationships and the Gospels were among Paul's Church has or for that matter in the Old Testament that we are getting models for us today . of course we read scripture be leaving that since God is the same God and people are still . an A B of the human animal almost eight pm . but there will be some common ground between the way God relates the way people relate and so forth . whether we are probably prone to start off with a certain naivety about how direct that that kind of relationship will correspond to our world . just a little reflection pond different Coulter's today . for example how American North American Coulter . I is different from Latin American culture . How each Latin American culture . Ken differ from each other how different states and ends subcultures within American differ from each other help . How European culture in Germany can differ even from parts of Germany or with whipped or thrush a word Africa . just the smallest are not a reflection of Paul in a courtroom differences especially when it comes to relationships especially when it comes to relationships . we realized that it probably is a little dangerous to simply assume that the way Jesus even the way Jesus related to others . and the Gospels is going to be a straight four model for how we will all can relate to each other . after all . Jesus was the Galilee and un he wasn't even a duty in due The recall true differences between people in Galilee . People is an area . People in Judea in the shop in Jerusalem . we cannot simply at least if we want to move to more profound reading of Scripture . we cannot simply assume that the relationships within the New Testament with it the way Jesus related to others . it's a title a small . there are no doubt English lessons to be alert . but we can assume that the specifics but concrete examples be the norms are going to be the same in fact if even the smallest report reflection were revealed about to melt way just bought Edwina completely absurd fall . but that we would find it in the way to Galilee in shoes related to each other . a timeless model . that would equally applied to all times in all places at least without some further reflection . again I'm not dismissing out of hand . what are saying is that needs to be a step in our procreation of the gospel relationships were of the Pauline shirt relationships that need to be that a lying in there that says . is there a court ruled different . here . the time . maybe not seen . what a word you in these next two Use lies for the next ten fifteen minutes . talk about some of the likely Coltrane differences in the weight Personality was conceived within the ancient world that is how the ancient people in the ancient minute range . likely think of themselves as people relate to each other as people differently from the way that we might assume in Western . a United States . Canadian or European . Coulter today . so for travel . American the North American culture tends to be individualistic . now this is . this is that we're not completely . individualistic in fact I believe it there's still many indications . as I believe of humanity in general that humans are herd animals by default The by default . Q poll most A B and is a herd animal . we are a group oriented animal . I believe that individual is . I get is something to have to be culturally . the court ruled deviation from the Cuban or not pushing bring about you judged on by saying that I'm simply saying that the default human . identifies him or herself . I think little more in terms of the groups to which they belong . then in terms of their individual identity . and so that's NT Western culture is the deviation from the the more prevalent . a group identity of the world . my group identity bow that is to say that most cultures throughout history and most times and places are collected . that is individuals think of themselves in terms of the troops in which they aren't that good . more than as self standing individual . again this is not the way we think we wanted to strike out on our own we what to do that which our own identity . I'm When . Eriksson identified . the ages of . Given development . he identified the teen years as identity verses will compete . I would argue that that is a distinctively Western stage of of human development that is not quite as that has until your character . I in Western culture . that is it a somewhat different . or rather quite different . not that other cultures don't have rights of passage of an end of an establishment identity within Western Coulter the establishment of identity is very individual . where I decide to what I want to be . this is why we gate . rather than have our range Marriage because we have to find out whether I is an individual and compatible a good match with someone else as an individual as opposed to it being pretty obvious whether I'm compatible by external features like of my family has or wherever from your guy or not you know I'm a guy in your girl and therefore we we go together . those kinds of external factors have been more prevalent throughout history in in identity and therefore marriages could be arranged even before child was born because you already knew . the key factors in identity before a child made any personal decision whatsoever . and so when we read about relationships in the Bible . what would we see the word I . I do this I do that I say this I think that we see the word bye in the Bible . it is not the individualistic by Western Coulter in terms what goes passage is originally met . it is rather than Collectivist by by as an individual embedded within certain groups . Emily then Neyrey in their book . Portraits of Paul . I think about my sleep Given three G's to kind of get is a snapshot of how ancient Mediterranean identity . an ancient group identity and group identity today . I was conceptualize Geography Genealogy Gender . they can pretty much know who a person as if you know where they're from . if you know what their family background is an A Pino whether they're male or female course these are the things of prejudice . we and I think rightly we rightly resist of stereotyping person based on these sorts of identifiers in our world I believe that is actually a defenseman . on other cultures . the weather . the biblical world . and the biblical texts were written which in the matrix of a world in which identity and relationships were conceptualized along these lines so the one the very word Jew . it can also be translated Judea . and in that sense anyone who was the Jew in the ancient world was tied to the region the geography of Judea and Jerusalem other end in some sense in the Gospel of John . though this is a debate . some of the Law harsh words that John said about the Jews is it really about the Jews as the race word about the Judea that is the leaders from Jerusalem . the genealogy what is your family . we tend a kind of cool boy is over . when we read the first chapters the first Chronicles or where Matthew one . what are like heirloom book to get to the get to get to this is a day a very important element of Ancient identity and of course gender gender roles were stereotyped with the major world . this is of course one of the issues facing the church today . the gender roles that we do find in various parts of Scripture we find parts of Scripture that transcend gender roles and we find parts of Scripture that is still . certain gender roles the question is is this part of Ancient Coulter . that the Kingdom . alternately transcendence or is this part of God's design for for the World of course the stakes are high because of . if this is the part of the corporal matrix of the Bible rather than God's ideal . then we are ironically find ourselves being militant for something that is about people who lived two thousand years ago and has nothing to do with it with the Kingdom of God . bought . it is part of you . the assumption of the body of Scripture . identity . we'll in bold these sorts of of of issues Who MRI as a function of the groups to which I belong . Honor shame is another category of Ancient colt role . Seoul sense of of identity . we can get The again not momentarily we still had peer pressure which the teams we've built up groups Republicans Democrats where we identify ourselves more in terms of the groups to which we belong him and we believe will we leave because were Wesley inner because or Baptist or because were returned rather than of having figured it out for ourselves . the week we still tend to be had elements of group identity in our world today . are you can tell this year I can tell how certain people are going to react to certain events . not because I'm of of of their own way of thinking but because of the groups to which they belong . this is still out with this like shit I think it's probably the default of the human animal . but in individuals Culture is going to lean more toward . conceptual efficient of guilt . whereas group cultures tend to lean more toward Honor and Shane Guilt . it is oriented around myself as an individual whether or not . not . I am . living in accordance with certain internalize principles and values of course Back Guild often comes from a body is instilled in us in our childhood and so forth . but I'm . Guilt tends to be . the way to an individual scorcher focuses on our right and and and wrong and so forth . whereas most of the biblical world . what have been oriented around on their in changes to the next trial . kind of value . understanding that is focused more about what my group thinks of me . then around whether I believe true to my own values would have been true to myself . being true to yourself is the individual's Western kind of contract . introspection . for example . whereas the ancient world the biblical world . most of the world is extra of this aspect of the thinking in terms of what others think of me . and so there's oldest language of glory and honor and shame in the biblical text that if your like I am you read right Body don't notice even harming . so . other . I'm not ashamed of the gospel . it's the power of God to salvation to everyone who has faced . I'm glory and honor God . what is humanity that you are mindful of that you crowned him with glory and honor . . Jesus looking at Jesus the author and finish her faith who for the joy set before him endured the cross despite using machine . this language of honor and glory and she is very much part of the biblical Coulter that the attitudes blessed and blessed it does not have the happiest a human emotion . an individual kind of thing . blessed it in bowls of Honor bestowed on you by some external . the figure in this case God bless a very you . you are honored in God's eyes . if you are pouring Spirit and so forth . then of course I'm in the ancient world . the men . I'm or oriented around Achieving glory their places outside the home Achieving glory . whereas women are . are our primary source of potential shame in ancient Coulter that you keep the women in the home . I'm . it in plateau an ancient you . he writes about . even Gov levels of boundary within the home to keep the virgins who were the biggest potential source of shame keep them in the innermost parts of the home . and so women in the ancient world argued more as potential liabilities . where's the men have potential to achieve glory . again these are categories that we find in the biblical text . God spoke Revelation . in the category C T to each of the categories of the biblical world and then moved them from their . he did not the Bible was not written in a timeless Bible completely disconnected to that the world . and the things that were going on around this . one of the key books that cover all them that things didn't in the slides is Bruce Moline is the new Tesco World Insights from CT rep politics it so all book by now but a great place to begin exploring . a goofy willingness to mean in several places in the slides . he's written the social World of Jesus and the Gospels . he's written set of co written a set of social scientific commentaries on the big phone John on all of Revelation . these are of particular excellent places to get eight eight a depth perspective . but we may know bowl The history of the Gospels and all we made it to know all the events we might be on the telly when Herod the great lived and died but we will have a shallow superficial surface structure kind of knowledge if we can place that history within the socio colt role of the structures that that you can read the words . and you even to say that God is our Father God is our Daddy . some people say Daddy is a fairly recent martyr . post Dickensian introspective you know buddy buddy kind of turned out I don't think probably has existed much in the history of the world . until until recent times . even if all but is a a close a term of close proximity . it probably isn't Daddy . in any martyr . extensive of that . of that term . but he died . other Kinship and Marriage of course this is Bailey is for the primary categories and identity . I is as we said in twenty earlier slides primary function identifier of of identity . and Marriage tended to be Endogamous Bayou by which I mean a person wanted to marry someone who is within their or their broader group certainly within your tribe within your . maybe even extended family not to close illegal to marry her sister but you might marry a cousin part of this is a matter of property keeping . keeping the possessions of the family within the family rather than potentially doling it out too . to someone else outside of the group and of course as I mentioned of Honor shame . I was unfolded in marriage you you wanted to marry up the letter to marry someone who brought other . two your group not someone who . a broadsheet . your group . are there so the social World of Jesus and the Gospels I mentioned which is again these are our very readable books that I'm for me at one point really . it's like I was in flat land . if you ever heard that old novel about two dimensional creatures you are surprised by three dimensional people who can appear in their rooms and disappear . because all they know it is basically a sheet of paper existence . will this is the way we read the Bible until we know something of the social dynamics . I'm That that stand behind what I was first exposed in this image like this like looking at one of those puzzles where all the sudden you see it in three dimension breed only seen it in two dimensions . there's of awful lot of flat land or preachy . out there that doesn't really have in depth understanding of I of of the biblical world cont . when we look at the relationships I in the Bible . and we win without even thinking assumed that Mary and Joseph are sitting at your stool in the kitchen having coffee together in the morning . this is not that you may be over the different rooms . from reading the Bible that way . but but dare we should not think the relationships where the same that they were presented that they were intimate in the way the artist . we're word intimate . a person from Africa . I've often said is for more likely to read the Bible with the proper connotations sociable true connotations that Western American is of course they can climb relationships not getting a little bit . beyond other . intimate relationships between people and into some more . other relationships that existed . but there were informal relationships in the show world between the haves and have not . the word grace Words gift . a spiritual gift even on these or peach which turns out there's a misconception about helping cont to work for sample you could solicit Patronage you could go to a person who had Things then ask if it's not a brace in the end the show world would not have meant that you do absolutely nothing to ask for . silly even though there were or for more expectations . there were some boundaries and informal expectations of such gifts . I'm into you if you received food from a rich person . and then went out and started telling everybody on the street what a jerk they were you are going to get food the next day . and so we shouldn't think that that the concept of grace in the Bible . I'm is of the sort that would just assume that you can . you basically curse God and he's going to continue to forgive your sins and so forth . I'm you you might get that one . a gift . but you may not get the next What joke . there are there some other . I think I'm . a slightly skewed understanding of what Patron Client Relationships work and thus What Grace and Gift language in the New Testament . what is likely connotations were . but as a whip to realize is used that time . the biblical worlds were economically different than ours the Old Testament was an agrarian for work I For world not by World War money was exchanged . there is money in the New Testament . money is not necessarily the central way of of of of Commerce in Jesus' world . Jesus seems to treat money as if someone on the periphery of his world and I think that's probably right . another thing to recognize is that when you're talking about resources rather than money . in our capitalist world . we think well everybody can be rich the same time we don't have a contradiction that said one person is rich another person's four . but when you're talking about resources rather than money . but state . we open to classify Given Apple everyone in the class at the end of the class one student has all the apples . well in that kind of a world . in order for one person degree which someone else has to be . four . and this is an important of understanding to have when you look at how negative the New Testament is poured well the New Testament is not positive . four twelve it is very negative . it work . rich people . especially Luke can change very very negative . we have to add to understand that in the context of a world in which . goodbye and resources were thought of it as a kind of limited amounted to zero sum game . one person has some give the person doesn't have any . and so are the important court ruled different . a lot of the principles ritual hear from those to talk about of biblical principles on wealth and money . it's not that those of the advice you get from those groups is wrong it's good advice . but there probably is often Psalms you because be a cop economics of the biblical world are simply not the economics of twenty percent re American capitalists . those are things that you'd that you're going to move to the next level Biblical appropriation bill lead you to take into account . David is still The has a great book called Honor Patronage Kinship . purity . that you might wanna look at if you wanna look at these sorts of issues Blow bit more intense do so was book mentions purity . we might mention that Clean and Unclean . I get still a part of our world today . we still talk about committees and the five second rule of how long the food is on the floor and then he'll even if I cleaned my feet . I cleaned and cleaner than anybody's hands a word you would still be grossed out by Tues my toes to try to eat French Christ . I'm . clean is because perception is reality . cleaning is open and clean is the real kind of thing . as one . sociologists anthropologists will put dirt does matter out of place . dirt soap is not dirty in my backyard it's dirty . if it's on my kitchen table . these are lying between trawl round the world and they are there in in Scripture particularly in the Old Testament . and it's real it's not just ritual . because of a new one Things something and isn't clean . the sun Clean and so other . we we fight each dismissed the surgeon thinks the world . but they were they were real and they can be real in our worlds too . we can think certain things or unclean . in interest charges . that are more a matter of our denomination maybe or a group . then then reality bit but that doesn't mean we can dismiss . because perception is a kind of reality . and of course I'm Sacrifice . it comes to do some of these . I'm some of these dynamics well be the guest a few of the other aspects of the biblical world where we read the words that we might just assumed relationships or door or interactive dynamics are not legally recognize the words we can fit them into our . so to quote role world . but we may be actually miss reading that connotation . that those of Words had originally been so hopefully this gets you at least started . for a more are deeper understanding . word deeper reading of some of the sketch and a new test relationships . because remember . Jesus didn't relate to that used in Galilee . as is if they were middle class Western American . Key says related to the ancient out of Galilee and hasn't use as Galilee and hasn't . Q and he was a Galleon hasn't . add you as well . back then . so we should not expect by the way he related necessary to be sad be the same as the way she . we can relate today we should not expect the way they live lead where the leadership principles of the New Testament old Testament to play out exactly to say I'm not saying that they want . I'm just saying that we need to have a line in our procreation of Scripture that says have I taken into account . the social corporate differences between my world and a biblical world .